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Arctic willow

An Arctic willow in the summer

The Arctic Environment: Because of the prevailing strong winds, thin snow cover, and limited depth of soil available for roots due to permafrost, tall trees are rarely found above the tree-line. Bush and tree species like this Arctic willow grow close to the ground so that they are protected by the snow during the winter and so that they do not get blown over by the wind. Arctic willow wood was useful for people for use in cooking fires during the summer and autumn. [The scale of this artic willow can be judged by the 35mm lens cap to the right of the center of the photo.]